Archaeological Geology of the Fort Hood Military Reservation, Fort Hood, Texas
TEXAS A AND M UNIV COLLEGE STATION ARCHEOLOGICAL RESEARCH LAB
Pagination or Media Count:
The soils and alluvial stratigraphy of eight streams at Fort Hood, Texas, were investigated between September 1989 and July 1990 to develop a site- prediction model for interpreting the buried Prehistoric and Historic cultural record. The eight streams included the Leon River and seven upland creeks Cowhouse, Table Rock, House, Owl, Henson, Reese, and North Nolan. Soil-sediment analyses of seven soil pedons, radiocarbon assays of 50 samples, and field investigations that included over 100 trenches and cutbanks, revealed three geomorphic surfaces and five stratigraphic units common to the upland streams and four geomorphic surfaces and six stratigraphic units unique to the Leon River. The geomorphic surfaces were designated, from oldest to youngest, as T3, T2, T1, and T0. Common to all streams were five informally recognized stratigraphic units named the Jackson approx. 15,000 B.P., Georgetown approx. 11,000 to 8200 B.P., Fort Hood 8000 to 4800 B.P., West Range 4300 to 600 B. P., and Ford 600 B.P. to present. The older Reserve alluvium 15,000 was unique to the Leon River basin. Late Quaternary climatic shifts, coupled with supply and depletion of upland soils, were apparent mechanisms governing periods of channel degradation and aggradation. In the seven upland drainage basins, Terrace 2 T2 was underline by the Jackson alluvium, while T1, a composite terrace, was underlain by the Georgetown, Fort Hood, and West Range alluvium. On all upland streams except Cowhouse, a low-relief topographic scarp separated the Fort Hood and West Range alluvium and warranted subdivision of T1 into T1a and T1b components, respectively.
- Humanities and History
- Geology, Geochemistry and Mineralogy
- Soil Mechanics