The Effects of Sea Mining Upon Amphibious Warfare
ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KS
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This study investigates the effects of sea mining upon amphibious warfare. The methodology involves case studies of amphibious assaults conducted at Gallipoli Normandy, Wonson, and the Persian Gulf during Operation Desert Storm. The cases are examined in terms of forces involved, mining conducted, and the effect the mining and mine countermeasures had upon the achievement of surprise in the assault. The study attempts to determine if the determining factor is the level of mine technology, or the size of the forces involved. It emphasizes the importance of rapid and complete mine countermeasures to the achievement of surprise in the amphibious assault. Based upon the four cases studied, the determinant appears to be force levels. At Normandy where levels were adequate, the operation was successful. At Gallipoli and Wonsan the results were either failure or inconclusive. The Persian Gulf study points out that failure would have been the likely result. A recommendation to prevent further deterioration of the mine countermeasures force is presented.
- Naval Surface Warfare
- Land Mine Warfare