Introduction to Cognitive Processes of Expert Pilots
ADVANCED AVIATION CONCEPTS INC JUPITER FL
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This report addresses the historical problem that a very high percentage of accidents have been classified as involving pilot error. Through extensive research since 1977, the Federal Aviation Administration determined that the predominant underlying cause of these types of accidents involved decisional problems or cognitive information processing. To attack these problems, Aeronautical Decision Making ADM training materials were developed and tested for ten years. Since the publication of the ADM training manuals in 1987,significant reductions in human performance error HPE accidents have been documented both in the U.S. and world wide. However, shortcomings have been observed in the use of these materials for re-currency training and in their relevance to more experienced pilots. The following discussion defines the differences between expert and novice decision makers from a cognitive information processing perspective, correlates the development of expert pilot cognitive processes with training and experience, and reviews accident scenarios which exemplify those processes. This introductory material is a necessary prerequisite to an understanding of how to formulate expert pilot decision making training innovations and, to continue the record of improved safety through ADM training.