Learning Processes and Learning Outcomes
Interim technical rept. Feb 1991-Feb 1992
ARMSTRONG LAB BROOKS AFB TX
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This paper summarizes our present knowledge and understanding of the processes and outcomes of learning. The basic idea about learning is that the outcomes of learning e.g., propositional knowledge, procedural skills, mental models reflect differences in learning processes e.g., encoding skills, attention allocation, hypothesis generation. Additionally, learning outcomes reflect differences in conative processes, e.g., encoding skills, attention allocation, hypothesis generation. Additionally, learning outcomes reflect differences in conative processes, knowledge structures, and metacognitive skills, mediated by the learning processes. Against the background of a brief historical introduction, this article presents a research-based overview of the major categories of educationally relevant learning outcomes and of the underlying acquisition processes. In this perspective, different learning environments are discussed such as learning by direct instruction, drill and practice, and discovery. Finally, implications for the design of computerized instructional environments are indicated.