Exercise and Three Psychosocial Variables: A Longitudinal Study.
NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER SAN DIEGO CA
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A predominant opinion in research and society today maintains that exercise is beneficial for the reduction of depression and enhancement of self-esteem and quality of life. Yet, controversy still exists over the populations in which these phenomena occur. The purpose of this study was to identify in whom, when, and where exercise participation EX has significant effects on depression DEP, self-esteem SE, and quality of life QOL. Data were collected on 1,292 male and female, active-duty Navy personnel in 1988 and 1989 as part of an on going evaluation of the Navys Health and Physical Readiness Program. Pearsons product-moment correlations revealed that EX was significantly related cross-sectionally to DEP, SE, and QOL, in the expected directions, at two separate points in time. Correlations among residualized gain scores revealed that changes in EX were significantly, negatively related to changes in DEP, and significantly, positively related to changes in SE and QOL over a one-year period, across the entire Navy sample. Tests which assessed the differences in the magnitudes of the change i.e. residualized gain correlations indicated significantly stronger relationships between EX and DEP SE andor QOL in individuals with a high school education than college graduates. Exercise, Quality of Life, Demographic subgroups, Depression Longitudinal, Residualized gain analysis, Self-Esteem, Navy Men and Women.
- Anatomy and Physiology