Smoking Status and Body Composition, Exercise, Dietary Intake, and Alcohol/Caffeine Consumption
NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER SAN DIEGO CA
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Although research on smoking status and body composition reveals conflicting results, extant literature indicates that dietary intake, alcohol consumption, exercise, lightmoderate versus heavy smoking, and the recency of smoking cessation are important variables to investigate. This study examined these variables in 1,820 Navy men. Of five body composition variables, only lean body mass was significantly p less than .05 related to smoking status. However, heavy smokers exercised the least and never smokers exercised the most. Heavy smokers also tended to eat high-fat meat more often, and eat lean meat, leafy vegetables, fruit, and fiber less often than all other groups. Long-term quitters were more similar to never smokers and short-term quitters more similar to lightmoderate smokers in eating patterns and consumption of low-fat foods. Heavy smokers drank twice as much alcohol and caffeine as never smokers and former smokers. In summary, smoking was associated with very low levels of exercise, a high-fat diet, and heavy consumption of alcohol-all of which are associated with the leading causes of death and disability in the United States. Navy health promotion efforts should continue to encourage smokers to quit as well as to modify other negative health behaviors that may accompany addiction to nicotine. AlcoholCaffeine Consumption, Smoking Status, Body Composition, Exercise, Dietary Intake.
- Medicine and Medical Research