Meta-Evaluation of Four Intelligent Tutoring Systems: Promises and Products
Final technical paper Jun 1990-Jul 1991,
ARMSTRONG LAB BROOKS AFB TX
Pagination or Media Count:
This paper examines two main promises of intelligent tutoring systems ITS 1 They will engender more effective and efficient learning in relation to traditional formats, and 2 they will reduce the range of learning outcome scores where a majority of individuals are elevated to high performance levels. Bloom 1984 has referred to these as the two sigma problem - to achieve two standard deviation improvements with tutoring over traditional instruction methods. Four ITS are discussed in relation to the two promises. These tutors have undergone systematic, controlled evaluations a The LISP tutor Anderson, Farrell, Sauers, 1984 b Smithtown Shute Glaser, 1991 c Sherlock Lesgold, Lajoie, Bunzo, Eggan, 1990 and d The PASCAL ITS Bonar, Cunningham, Beatty, Weil, 1988. Results show that these four tutors do accelerate learning with no degradation in final outcome. Suggestions for improvements to the design and evaluation of ITS are discussed.