On the Role of Crystal Defects as Sources of Resonator Frequency Instability
Final rept. Jun 1985-Aug 1988
HENRY KRUMB SCHOOL OF MINES NEW YORK
Pagination or Media Count:
This work involved the study of defects in quartz crystals, primarily by the use of electrical measurements, viz. electrical conductivity and dielectric relaxation DR measurements. The latter has turned out to be a powerful tool since it is capable of detecting dipolar defects that other techniques, e.g. electron paramagnetic resonance EPR and infrared absorption IR, cannot detect, as well as defects that EPR can also measure. DR peaks have been observed that are produced by Al-Na defects in two different configurations, by Al-hole defects, and by several types of defects involving Fe, in the case of Fe-containing crystals. In all cases, we have worked to identify the responsible defect, to correlate it with defects measured by EPR and IR techniques, and to determine the interactions of the defect with the lattice. Special attention has also been given to the role of ionizing radiation X-ray and y-rays and of subsequent annealing on these various defects.