Smoking, Exercise, and Physical Fitness
NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER SAN DIEGO CA
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Research on smoking and physical activity provides strong evidence of smokings negative impact and physical activitys positive impact on long-term health. However, evidence is lacking on the association between smoking and spontaneous exercise activity and the independent effects of these factors on physical fitness. The present study examined these factors in 3,045 Navy personnel. Smoking was clearly associated with lower exercise levels and lower physical endurance cardiorespiratory and muscular even after controlling for exercise. Smoking was not related to overall body strength lean body mass nor percent body fat after controlling for exercise. These findings suggests that both the direct and indirect links among smoking, exercise, and physical fitness should be explored in models examining health.
- Medicine and Medical Research