Frequency Standards for Communications
ARMY LAB COMMAND FORT MONMOUTH NJ ELECTRONICS TECHNOLOGY AND DEVICES LAB
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The fundamentals of quartz and atomic frequency standards are reviewed. The subjects discussed include crystal resonators and oscillators, atomic oscillators, oscillator types, and the characteristics and limitations of temperature-compensated crystal oscillators TCXO, oven-controlled crystals oscillators OCXO, rubidium frequency standards, cesium beam frequency standards and hydrogen masers. The oscillator instabilities discussed include aging, noise, frequency vs. temperature, warmup acceleration effects, magnetic field effects, atmospheric pressure effects, radiation effects, and interactions among the various effects. Guidelines are provided for oscillator comparison and selection. A discussion of time transfer techniques, and specifications are also included, as are references and suggestions for further reading.
- Test Facilities, Equipment and Methods
- Atomic and Molecular Physics and Spectroscopy