Accession Number:

ADA227134

Title:

Evaluation Characterization of Mechanisms Controlling Fate and Effects of Army Smokes. (Transport, Transformations, Fate and Terrestrial Ecological Effects of Brass Obscurants).

Descriptive Note:

Final rept. Jan 89-Mar 90,

Corporate Author:

BATTELLE PACIFIC NORTHWEST LABS RICHLAND WA

Report Date:

1990-08-29

Pagination or Media Count:

174.0

Abstract:

The primary objective of this study was to characterize the fate and response of soil and biotic components of the terrestrial environment to aerosols, deposited brass, and brass in combination with fog oil. Important physical, chemical, and biotic aspects were investigated using an environmental wind tunnel. Airsurface deposition rates were determined for foliar and soil surfaces, both in the absence and presence of fog oil. Deposition velocities for foilage ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 cms at wind speeds of 2 to 10 mph, respectively. Foliar contact toxicity was assessed using five different types of terrestrial vegetation representative of Army training sites and surrounding environments. No significant foliar contact toxicity was observed for brass. The weathering and chemistry of brass aerosols deposited and amended to soils was assessed, along with the impacts of acid precipitation and moisture regimes on weathering rates. Rates of brass weathering and the fate of solubilized Cu and Zn are discussed. The influence of soil weathering processes and brass solubilization on seed germination indicated no detectable effects of brass. However, moderate toxicity effects ere noted after 160 days of soil incubation. The effects were proportional to soil-loading levels. Influence of soil weathering processes and contaminant solubilization on soil microbiological activities indicated that soil dehydrogenase activity was more susceptible to impacts than was phosphatase activity or microbial biomass.

Subject Categories:

  • Inorganic Chemistry

Distribution Statement:

APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE