Three-Dimensional Sound Propagation in Shallow Water Including the Effects of Rough Surfaces
NAVAL OCEANOGRAPHIC AND ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH LAB STENNIS SPACE CENTER MS
Pagination or Media Count:
A three-dimensional parabolic equation 3DPE that handles wide angles in the vertical, narrow angles in the azimuth, and rough ocean surfaces and bottoms is derived. The 3DPE is solved numerically using the method of alternating directions. Surface roughness is accounted for by a reflection coefficient that depends on grazing angle. Calculations are presented to illustrate the rough surface model and to demonstrate that azimuthal diffraction can be important in shallow water. The ability of the 3DPE to accurately handle azimuthal diffraction is demonstrated with a benchmark calculation. Algorithms for improving the efficiency of 3DPE models are discussed. Reprints.