Fructosamine: Structure, Analysis, and Clinical Usefulness
SCHOOL OF AEROSPACE MEDICINE BROOKS AFB TX
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Glucose molecules are joined to protein molecules to form stable ketoamines, or fructosamines, through glycation, a nonenzymatic mechanism involving a labile Schiff base intermediate and the Amadori rearrangement. The amount of fructosamine in serum is increased in diabetes mellitus owing to the abnormally high concentration of sugar in blood. The concentration of fructosamine in serum thus reflects the degree of glycemic control attained by the diabetic patient and is useful in monitoring the effectiveness of therapy in diabetes over a period of several weeks, in a manner analogous to the determination of glycated hemoglobin. Of the analytical approaches used to measure fructosamine, affinity chromatography with m-aminophenylboronic acid and the nitroblue tetrazolium reduction method appear to be the most practical means for clinical chemists to assay fructosamine quickly, economically, and accurately. Fructosamine values can readily distinguish normal individuals and diabetic patients in good glycemic control from diabetes in poor control. Unlike glycated hemoglobin, which reflects the average blood sugar concentration over the past six to eight weeks, fructosamine reflects the average blood sugar concentration over the past two to three weeks. Thus a clinical advantage is that fructosamine responds more quickly to changes in therapy, thereby allowing for improved glycemic control. Used in conjunction with determinations of blood sugar and or of glycated hemoglobin, or by itself, the fructosamine assay can provide clinically useful information for the detection and control of diabetes. Keywords DiagnosisMedicine, Bioassay, Reprints.
- Medicine and Medical Research