Accession Number:

ADA196203

Title:

Metaphoric Displays for Dynamic Tasks

Descriptive Note:

Final rept. Oct 86-Mar 87

Corporate Author:

KLEIN ASSOCIATES INC YELLOW SPRINGS OH

Personal Author(s):

Report Date:

1987-03-01

Pagination or Media Count:

45.0

Abstract:

This study considered how to organize displays so that they could be easily used during dynamic task conditions. Use of computer-driven displays has created potential for information overload and clutter. In periods of time pressure, it is critical that operators be able to quickly locate relevant items of information. Previous research has shown that metaphors could provide organizing principles to improve the intelligibility of displays. We found that metaphor is used by designers of software, interfaces, and display formats on an ad hoc basis. Organizing metaphors are rarely used systematically to tie parts of the display together, and principles or rules to guide the use of metaphor are lacking. When used systematically, metaphor can be a powerful tool for organizing both the designers task and the operators use of the display. Analyses of the information collected showed that visual metaphors fell into three classes descriptive metaphors, pictorial metaphors, and organizing metaphors. We identified several task types requiring metaphoric displays presentation of current state, presentation of dynamic and anticipated states, sensor conditioncontrol, monitoring key processes, actionscontrols, routine performance, and distributed decision making. We describe a logic for the use of organizing metaphors.

Subject Categories:

  • Human Factors Engineering and Man Machine Systems

Distribution Statement:

APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE