Accession Number:

ADA190690

Title:

Water Quality Criteria for Colored Smokes: 1,4-Diamino-2,3- Dihydroanthraquinone

Descriptive Note:

Final rept.

Corporate Author:

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LAB TN HEALTH AND SAFETY RESEARCH DIV

Report Date:

1988-01-01

Pagination or Media Count:

69.0

Abstract:

The available data on the environmental fate, aquatic toxicity, and mammalian toxicity of 1,4-diamino-2,3-dihydroanthraqiunene DDA, an anthraquinone dye used in violet-colored smoke grenades, were reviewed. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency USEPA guidelines were used in an attempt to generate water quality criteria for the protection of human health and of aquatic life and its uses. Colored smoke grenades are formulated and loaded at the Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas. During typical production of pyrotechnic items, approximately 1 to 2 percent of the smoke formulation is released into the aquatic environment. The primary aquatic system receiving these discharges is the Arkansas River and its associated drainages. DDA will readily oxidize to 1,4-diaminoanthraquinone DAA in air or during combustion of the smoke grenade. The dye is insoluble in water however, no information is available concerning its transformation or transport in soil, water, and sediments. DDA is a weak mutagen in the Salmonella Reversion Assay, but the combustion or oxidation product, DAA, is a strong mutagen in the same test. Violet smoke is noncarcinogenic in the SENCAR Mouse Skin Tumor Bioassay.

Subject Categories:

  • Pyrotechnics
  • Water Pollution and Control
  • Environmental Health and Safety

Distribution Statement:

APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE