Repair, Evaluation, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation Research Program. A Review of Bird Pests and Their Management.
CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING RESEARCH LAB (ARMY) CHAMPAIGN IL
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This report provides a descriptive survey of conflicts and problems that birds have caused man, identifies the state of the art methodologies in bird management and control, and examines potential disease risks to humans. Bird problems are related to one or more of the following categories damages and economic losses, human health and safety, aesthetics, inconveniences, and competition with native species and brood parasitism. Pigeons, starlings, and house sparrows, all introduced from Europe, and several species fo native blackbirds--usually in excessive numbers--are responsible for most problems in the United States. Most of the research on bird management has been directed to agricultural and feedlot depredations, winter blackbird-starling roosts, and safety hazards to aircraft urban bird management strategies have not been adequately researched. Large-scale control measures include habitat modifications, repellents, frightening devices, and wetting agents. Exclusion, toxic baits, toxic perches, live-trapping, repellents, and frightening devices are all used for controlling small-scale or local bird damage problems. Birds represent a potential, although low, health or disease risk for humans. Most avian pathogens or parasites only affect other birds and host specificity is often high. Pets, poultry, game species, and aviary specimens have been affected in epidemics. The most important human diseases associated with birds in the United States are histoplasmosis, encephalitis, chlamydiosis, and cryptococcosis. All four of these diseases are potential health hazards at Civil Works Projects because of the bird species present and sitehabitat characteristics.