Frost Resistance of High-Strength Concrete.
ARMY ENGINEER WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT STATION VICKSBURG MS STRUCTURES LAB
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High-strength concrete made with crushed granite as coarse aggregate but without air entrainment showed an average durability factor of 95 after 300 cycles of freezing and thawing in the laboratory. Determination of air content by American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM Designation C 457 showed the unexpectedly good results were not the effect of protection afforded by air entrainment. Petrographic examination confirmed lack of damage on a microscopical scale. It was concluded that self desiccation and low permeability associated with an 0.24 water-cementitious solids ratio WS prevented development of critical saturation so that the concrete behaved during testing as if it were not critically saturated and thus was not damaged by freezing. Similar concrete at the same WS with crushed limestone as coarse aggregate showed a durability factor of 17. It is presumed that this is brought about by the lack of frost resistance of the limestone itself since in air-entrained concrete the specimens with granite coarse aggregate gave an average durability of 92, while those with limestone coarse aggregate gave an average durability of only 55.
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