Arithmetic Procedures are Induced from Examples.
Technical rept. 1 Jan 82-15 Jun 85,
XEROX PALO ALTO RESEARCH CENTER CA INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS LAB
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According to a common folk model, students learn arithmetic by understanding the teachers explanation of it. This folk model suggests that other, more complicated procedural skills are also acquired by being told. The evidence presented herein suggests that learning-by-being-told is an inaccurate model of the kind of arithmetic learning that actually occurs in classrooms. Rather, arithmetic is learned by induction the generalization and integration of examples. Contents 1 Schematic vs. teleological knowledge 2 Three ways that arithmetic could be learned 3 The conservative evaluation of the induction hypothesis 4 A liberal evaluation of the induction hypothesis 5 Learning by analogy 6 Learning by being told 7 Summary 8 Concluding remarks 9 Appendix.