Income Smoothing: Methodology and Models.
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA
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This study investigates methodology used to investigate income smoothing by business firms. Three important researcher methodological decisions used in past empirical studies of income smoothing design type, smoothing device norm, and income target are discussed and evaluated. Each of the three decisions is found to have a significant effect on the operationalization and measurement of income smoothing behavior. The identification of smoothing, and consequently the conclusions to be drawn from smoothing studies, is found to be sensitive to the three methodological choices.
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