Science, Technology, and Intelligence,
WASHINGTON UNIV SEATTLE DEPT OF PSYCHOLOGY
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The scientific concept of intelligence has been heavily influenced by the technology of measurement. In a sense, the variables that we can measure have been made the operational definition of intelligence. This approach contrasts to a deductive approach, in which a theory of cognition in general is used to derive the sort of measurements that must be taken to describe an individuals cognitive competence. The cognitive science approach to cognition in general can be used as a base theory. The base theory then generates requirements on measurements of individual intelligence that are different from the sorts of measures that might be taken if the purpose of testing is to predict performance in some ill-defined criterion situation. The use of theory-defined measures of individual mental competence is contrasted to the use of measures that are justified in terms of their predictive validity.