Mississippi and Louisiana Estuarine Areas. Freshwater Diversion to Lake Pontchartrain Basin and Mississippi Sound. Feasibility Study. Volume 2. Technical Appendixes, A, B, C, D.
Final environmental impact statement,
ARMY ENGINEER DISTRICT NEW ORLEANS LA
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The study area has experienced land loss and saltwater intrusion due to natural processes such as subsidence and erosion, as well as mans developmental activities including leveeing, channelization, and petroleum exploration. The various natural proceses and mans activitites have altered overbank flooding and natural distributary flow which historically provided fresh water, sediments, and nutrients to the estuarine areas. This has resulted in conversion of fresh, intermediate, and brackish marshes to more saline marsh types and has also caused the loss of substantial areas of wooden swamp. Saltwater intrusion and loss of wetlands have adversely affected the productivity of wildlife and fishery resources. Influx of saline waters is particularly harmful to the American oyster, due to increased predation and disease. Thousands of acres of formerly productive oyster reefs in the area lie largely unproductive due to excessive salinities. One way to ameliorate loss of wetland habitat and rate of saltwater intrusion is timely introduction of fresh water and associated sediments and nutrients into the study area. A total of 13 potential sites were evaluated for diversion of fresh water. Based on the results of this study, it has been recommended that fresh water from the Mississippi River be diverted into Lake Pontchartrain at a site adjacent to the Bonnet Carre Spillway. This site is located at river mile 128.5. Implementation of this plan would save approximately 4,186 acres of marsh and 6.355 acres of wooden swamp. Additionally, average annual oyster production in the study area would increase by about 7.5 million pounds.
- Hydrology, Limnology and Potamology
- Civil Engineering