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The Effects of Water and Hydrogen on Materials Used in Integrated Circuit Packages.
AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING
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This investigation determined the adsorption properties of water on RC-5878 polyimide, rolled gold foil, and rolled nickel foil at 20 C, as well as the effects that hydrogen has on nickel foil with a monolayer coverage of water molecules. Adsorption isotherms were obtained using a vacuum ultramicrobalance with a sensibility of 0.1 micrograms per 10 gram load. The microbalance system includes a gas handling system, a stainless steel housing, and a quadrupole residual gas analyzer. The isotherms were analyzed using the B. E. T. surface area technique. The results showed that RC-5878 polyimide adsorbs water in an amount proportional to the thickness of the sample when the given cure is used. The rolled gold foil showed no mass gain from water absorption. The nickel foil adsorbed water on 0.86 sq cm of the 210 sq cm sample, and adsorbed on 0.40 sq cm during the second run of the experiment. An Auger scan revealed a large concentration of oxygen due to nickel oxide which acted as a passivation layer for the remaining nickel sample surface. A monolayer of water molecules was obtained on the nickel surface, and hydrogen was admitted to the system. The sample exhibited a mass gain which was attributed to hydrogen bonding on the nickel oxide surface. Originator-supplied keywords include Gravimetric analysis, Microbalance, Vacuum, Ultrahigh vacuum, Adsorption, Water adsorption, Packaging materials polyimide, Gold, Nickel.
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