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Collective Effects in the Free Electron Laser (FEL)
NAVAL RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON DC
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With intense relativistic electron beams, such as generated by induction linear accelerators, pulsed transmission line accelerators or high current RF linacs, collective effects can play an important role in the FEL process. High gain FELs are said to operate in the Raman regime when collective effects dominate the usual ponderomotive effects. Collective effects may also play an important role in low gain FELs when the beam current is sufficiently high. In this paper the linear and nonlinear dynamics of the FEL mechanisms, including space charge effects, is analyzed. The various collective and noncollective operating regimes are discussed.
APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE