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New Control Design Principles Based on Measured Performance and Energy Analysis of HVAC (Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning) Systems.
CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING RESEARCH LAB (ARMY) CHAMPAIGN IL
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This report is one of a series on the development of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning HVAC control systems that are simple, efficient, reliable, maintainable, and well-documented. This report identifies major problems associated with three currently used HVAC control systems. It also describes the development of a retrofit control system applicable to military buildings that will allow easy identification of component failures, facilitate repair, and minimize system failures. Evaluation of currently used controls showed that pneumatic temperature control equipment requires a very clean source of supply air and is also not very accurate. Pneumatic, rather than electronic, actuators should be used because they are cheaper and require less maintenance. Thermistor temperature detectors should not be used for HVAC applications because they require frequent calibration. It was found that enthalpy economy cycles cannot be used for control because the humidity sensors required for their use are prone to rapid drift, inaccurate, and hard to calibrate in the field. Performance of control systems greatly affects HVAC operating costs. Significant savings can be achieved if proportional-plus-integral control schemes are used. Use of the retrofit prototype control panel developed in this study on variable-air-volume systems should provide significant energy cost savings, improve comfort and reliability, and reduce maintenance costs.
APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE