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Racial Harmony, Leadership, and Unit Effectiveness in Combat Units: An Exploratory Assessment of Causal Relationships
Final rept. 15 Jun 1978-15 Apr 1980
JOHNSON (LAWRENCE) AND ASSOCIATES INC WASHINGTON DC
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Causal relationships between racial harmony and unit effectiveness, and between leadership, racial harmony, and unit effectiveness were examined using a longitudinal design and cross-lagged panel analysis. Sixty combat line companies were studied over a seven-month period. Data collected included both survey and record data measures. Cross-lagged panel analysis revealed that, in general, improvements in unit effectiveness were conductive to improvements in racial harmony, although one measure of racial harmony, perceived overall racial climate, was found to reduce perceptions of insubordination in the unit and increase the performance rating of and acquiescence to company leaders. Leadership variables, like the racial harmony variables, generally improved as a result of unit effectiveness. An exception to this trend was found in the leadership punishment variables, number of Article 15s, and number of unprogrammed discharges, which were found to have a negative effect on several aspects of unit effectiveness and racial climate. Additional keywords enlisted personnel Army personnel.
APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE