Accession Number:

ADA149652

Title:

A Study of Fire Hazards from Combustible Ammunition: Effects of Scale and Confinement

Descriptive Note:

Final rept. on phase 2

Corporate Author:

SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INST SAN ANTONIO TX

Report Date:

1984-12-01

Pagination or Media Count:

195.0

Abstract:

This report presents results of the 2nd phase of a program to improve safety distance standards for Hazard Divisions 1.3 and 1.4 munitions. In normal shipping container configurations, functioning of one smoke grenade in a container does not normally cause sympathetic ignition of adjoining grenades. Tests of munitions in the open showed marked differences in reactions by various types of munitions. Flares and solid-propellant rocket motors often react with ejection or propulsion of pieces from a stack or container, and hence behave very unpredictably. Bulk materials such as gun propellents behave in a much more reproducible manner, but they do eject quantities of burning firebrands. Tests were performed in two vented, intermediate-scale enclosures, an 8-ft cubicle made of fire-resistant material, and a tenth-scale geometric model of a standard storage igloo. Tests were performed with smoke grenades, bulk propellants and flares in the cubicle. The smoke grenade tests were quite benign. The propellant tests showed that, beyond some critical loading density, much unburned propellant is carried out in an exhaust plume, and temperatures are higher in the external plume than within the cubicle. Tests with flares showed that reproducibility of ignition and function of these munitions is poor, but that simultaneous ignition of several flares produced large fireballs. The test with flares produced enough pressure rise within the cubicle to fail the weak refractory wall panels. Keywords include fire hazards, rate of heat release, calorimetry, mass burning rate, and regression analysis.

Subject Categories:

  • Pyrotechnics

Distribution Statement:

APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE