Quantum Noise and Excess Noise in Optical Homodyne and Heterodyne Receivers
MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE
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A parallel development of the semiclassical and quantum statistics of multi-spatiotemporal mode direct, homodyne, and heterodyne detection using an ideal except for its sub-unity quantum efficiency photon detector is presented. Particular emphasis is placed on the latter two coherent detection configurations. The primary intent is to delineate the semiclassical theorys regime of validity and to show, within this regime of validity, how the quantum theorys signal quantum noise, local oscillator quantum noise, the quantum noise incurred because of sub-unity detector quantum efficiency, plus for heterodyning only image band quantum noise produce the quantitative equivalent of the semiclassical theorys local oscillator shot noise. The effects of classical fluctuations on the local oscillator, and the recently suggested dual- detector arrangement for suppressing these fluctuations, are treated. It is shown that previous studies of this arrangement have neglected a potentially significant noise contribution.
- Optical Detection and Detectors