Bug Hill: Excavation of a Multicomponent Midden Mound in the Jackfork Valley, Pushmataha County, Southeast Oklahoma.
Report of investigation no. 81-1 (Final),
NEW WORLD RESEARCH INC POLLOCK LA
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The Bug Hill site is an accretional midden mount set on the Holocene age Jackfork Terrace, along an intermittent tributary of Jackfork Creek. Analyses indicated that the site was occupied from the Middle Archaic to the Historic Period. The site was the locus of intense occupation from the Late Archaic through the Early Caddoan Periods ca. 1600 B.C. to A.D. 1000. Throughout this time, the site served predominantly as a base camp with the focus of the various occupations centered on the procurement and production of chipped stone tools and the utilization of lowland forest and riverine resources. Through time increasing emphasis was placed on the collection of wild plants, culminating in the possible use of domesticates especially sunflower during the Early Caddo. Correlated with the change in subsistence was an increasing specialization in the use of space both within structures and over the entire site. Many of these changes may be associated with the residents of the Jackfork Valley participating in or being influenced by cultural phenomena emanating from the Caddo centers along the Arkansas andor Red Rivers. After the Early CAddo Period, the site was used intermittently as a locus for short-term camps. Evidence of a brief historic occupation dating to the late nineteenth century was also found.
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