An Assessment of Interactive Graphics Processing in Short-Range Terminal Weather Forecasting.
AIR FORCE GEOPHYSICS LAB HANSCOM AFB MA
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The products judged most useful in preparing short-range terminal forecasts included 1 conventional geographic data displays presented simultaneously as four quadrant panels on one screen, 2 regional scale surface analyses, plots and data listings of basic variables, 3 satellite-based trajectory technique, 4 tailored plot displays such as the station-model time-series display, and 5 mapped displays of forecast guidance derived from the NMC LFM model. The importance of half-hourly visible and IR imagery from GOES in short-range terminal forecasting was confirmed in this experiment. The forecasters relied more heavily on it to prepare their forecasts than any other data source. The manipulation of digital imagery in a computer-based interactive graphics system through time-series looping, color enhancements, and overlaying conventional plots and analyses on it, provides a wealth of qualitative and quantitative guidance for fore- casting. The numerical forecasts yielded superior rmses compared to persistence for all forecast intervals and for each forecast element. Probability forecasts were substantially better than persistence probability and sample climatology. GEM showed skill relative to persistence probability but yielded larger rmses did persistence in its numerical form. MOS guidance was found to be useful for forecast intervals of 4 hr or longer.