The Impact of Cooperative, Competitive, and Individualistic Experiences on Minority Individuals' Educational and Career Success.
MINNESOTA UNIV MINNEAPOLIS COOPERATIVE LEARNING CENTER
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The way in which academic learning experiences are structured determines to a large extent the success of minority students in college and in their later careers. There are three ways in which learning experiences may be structured cooperatively, competitively, and individualistically. For the past ten years the authors have conducted an extensive research program, developed a number of theoretical models, and systematically reviewed and the literature comparing the efficacy of the three goal structures. The results of these efforts are summarized in this paper. There is considerable evidence that cooperative, compared with competitive and individualistic, learning experience promote higher achievement, the development of critical thinking competencies and higher level reasoning strategies, the acquisition of positive attitudes toward subject areas such as math and science required to enter high tech careers, the interpersonal skills needed to work effectively with other people and engage in group problem-solving activities, and the psychological health and self-confidence required to succeed within a career setting. In addition, the relationships formed within cooperative learning groups provide an interpersonal network that directly relates to career opportunities and advancement.
- Personnel Management and Labor Relations