Lightning as a Source of NO sub x in the Troposphere.
INSTITUTE FOR DEFENSE ANALYSES ALEXANDRIA VA
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The contribution of lightning to the global tropospheric NO sub x budget is estimated. The injection height of the NO sub x as well as its latitudinal distribution is provided for use in 2-D atmospheric models. Several components of the NO sub x production estimate are reviewed in detail. Numerical modeling calculations, experimental simulations, as well as in-situ measurments are examined to determine the efficiency of NO sub x production by lightning. Global lightning distributions from satellites are used to derive a mathematical expression for the seasonal and latitudinal lightning rate. Specific attention is given to the latitudinal behavior of the height of NO sub x injection and the partitioning of the lightning rate between cloud-to-ground flashes and intracloud discharges. Various mechanisms for the loss of NO sub x through rainout during the accompanying thunderstorm are examined and are found to be ineffective. The annual, global NO sub x production rate derived here is 5.7 x 10 to the 12th power gNyr for all forms of lightining.
- Atmospheric Physics