Detection of Rift Valley Fever Virus Antigen by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH INST OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES FORT DETRICK MD
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A double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked assay ELISA was adapted to detect Rift Valley fever virus antigen. Antibodies were purified from hyperimmune mouse and rabbit sera by affinity chromatography, using CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B coupled to a beta-propiolactone-inactivated sucrose-acetone-extracted suckling mouse liver antigen. In the assay, antigen was captured by mouse antibody adsorbed to polystyrene plates and then detected by reacting sequentially with rabbit anti-Rift Valley fever virus antibody and swine anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G conjugated to alkaline phosphatase. ELISA proved to be useful in measuring viral antigen in different animal systems. However, great variation was found in the amount of antigen per PFU encountered in different circumstances. The ELISA system was optimized using supernatant fluids from infected Vero cell cultures and had a sensitivity of 10 expn 5 PFUml. Hamsters develop progressive viremia, much as seen in susceptible domestic animals, such as lambs ELISA could reliably detect 10 expn 6 PFUml of viremic hamster serum. Rhesus monkeys with Rift Valley fever infection were positive by ELISA even when viremias were only 5 x 10 expn 3 PFUml. ELISA also proved to be useful in measuring viral antigen in infected mosquitoes.
- Medicine and Medical Research