Development and Calibration of an Oil Spill Behavior Model.
TORONTO UNIV (ONTARIO) DEPT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND APPLIED CHEMISTRY
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An oil spill behavior model has been developed which describes the changing area, thickness and physical properties of spills of Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil, No. 2 fuel home heating oil and No. 4 heavy fuel oil under Arctic marine conditions. The oil properties calculated are density, viscosity, pour point, aqueous solubility, flash point, fire point and interfacial tension. The model calculations include spreading into thin sheen and thick slicks, drift, evaporation, dispersion, and formation of water-in-oil emulsions mousse formation. The model was calibrated by fitting the model equations to data obtained from outdoor weathering experiments conducted at the Coast Guard RD Center, Groton, Connecticut, during the Winters of 197980 and 198081 in which arctic spring conditions were simulated. A comprehensive sampling program yielded data on the changing oil properties. The model successfully described the rate of evaporation and the physical properties under these test conditions, with the exception that interfacial tensions were not well predicted. This exception is probably due to the formation of surface active compounds by oil oxidation, and water-in-oil emulsion formation induced by rainfall. It is believed that the model provides the capability of predicting, with acceptable accuracy, the behavior and properties of the three oils when spilled under arctic marine conditions. Author
- Physical Chemistry