The Effects of the Timing of Feedback on Long-Term Knowledge Retention in PSI Courses.
Final rept. Oct 79-Sep 81,
NAVY PERSONNEL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER SAN DIEGO CA
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The personalized system of instruction PSI, precision teaching, and the Navys computer-managed instruction system are among several instructional systems that dictate the provision of immediate feedback to maximize student learning. The objective of this series of experiments was to examine the relationship between the timing of feedback and long-term knowledge retention under classroom conditions that exist in courses taught according to the principles of PSI. Three experiments were conducted, all employing undergraduates in college courses taught according to PSI principles. Experiment I examined retention as a function of feedback delay interval in an introductory anthropology course using short answer essay tests. Experiment II varied feedback delay interval, the informational quality of feedback, and test item type, and Experiment III examined delay and item type in a psychology course on experimental design. There was no evidence of the superiority of either immediate or delayed feedback. Providing different types of feedback varying the amount of information likewise produced no differential levels of retention. The frequent, repeatable quizzing aspect of PSI probably makes feedback a less potent variable than it is in other types of courses, since students have to learn smaller quantities of material for each test, and many opportunities to learn from whatever type of feedback is provided.
- Humanities and History