A Dynamic Model of the Cervical Spine and Head
Final technical rept. May 1978-Aug 1980
NORTHWESTERN UNIV EVANSTON IL
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A data base of the head and cervical spine structure for a three- dimensional mathematical model of the human head-spine system has been developed on the basis of recently obtained geometric and stiffness data. The model was developed for predicting detailed head-spine system responses and injury probabilities during, for example, retractionejection and ground impact. This model of the head and cervical spine structure treats the cervical spine and head as a collection of rigid bodies and deformable elements the rigid bodies represent the vertebral bodies and head and the deformable elements represent the intervertebral discs, ligaments, facet joints and muscles. The model is completely three dimensional and can treat nonlinearities due to large displacements and material properties. The geometric data consist of the initial configuration of the vertebrae and the points of attachments of the muscles, discs and ligaments to the vertebrae. Particular attention was devoted to reproducing the orientations of the articular facets. Stiffness data for the intervertebral discs, ligaments and facet joints were developed. A muscle model which includes reflex and voluntary activation was included for the major muscles. Inertial data was developed by estimating the height and cross- sectional area of the sections of the neck associated with each motion segment and multiplying by a uniform density.
- Stress Physiology