Stress, Social Support and Adjustment.
MICHIGAN UNIV ANN ARBOR RESEARCH CENTER FOR GROUP DYNAMICS
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A theoretical model conceptualizing adjustment as person-environment fit is presented. This model integrates theories of stress, strain, social support, attrition, coping and defense. Relevant hypotheses were examined in a sample of enlisted men who were leaving the Navy after 20 years of service and in a contrasting sample of men who were staying in the Navy after 20 years. Questionnaires were administered at three points in time over a span of seven months for the leaving. Questionnaires for the stayers were administered at two times. Job stresses Job Complexity, Work Load, Role Ambiguity, Under-utilization of Abilities and martial stress were found to correlate with strains Job Dissatisfaction, Marital Dissatisfaction, Low Self-esteem, Anxiety, Depression, Irritation, Somatic Complaints. Fit measures of stress were also related to strains. Social support was found to reduce stress and strain and to act as a buffer reducing the effects of stress on strain. Sometimes negative buffering occurrs, i.e., social support increases the effect of stress on strain. The conditions which produce positive vs. negative buffering are discussed. Twenty-nine significant predictors of attrition including person-environment misfit and other elements of the theory were identified. The results are summarized and suggestions for future research are discussed. Author
- Sociology and Law