Surface Effects on Plastic Deformation.
MARYLAND UNIV COLLEGE PARK
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A computer simulation investigation of a dynamic near-surface dislocation operation resulted in the formation of a hard layer of 10 to 500 microns in thickness. This hard layer disappears with time at room temperature when the stress has been removed, i.e. relaxation. The relaxation time for Cu is approximately 2 weeks for Fe-Si and Mo the relaxation time is 2 and 10 years, respectively. Author