Fuel Microemulsions for Jet Engine Smoke Reduction
Final rept. 4 Jul 1979-15 Mar 1980
SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INST SAN ANTONIO TX MOBILE ENERGY DIV
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The concept of water and alcoholfuel microemulsions for the purpose of reducing smoke emissions from jet engine test cells was studied in a T-63 gas turbine combustor. Several ethanolfuel, methanolfuel and waterfuel microemulsions were prepared with JP-4 and JP-8 base fuels and the appropriate surfactants. Both metallic ferrocene and nonmetallic hydrazine smoke-reducing additives were examined for possible synergistic effects when combined with the microemulsified fuels. The fuels were tested at the takeoff, climb, cruise and ground idle operating condition, and the exhaust smoke, flame radiation and gaseous emissions were measured. The exhaust smoke and flame radiation were significantly reduced by the additions of alcohols and water to the base fuels. Ethanol was found to be most cost effective because it required the least amount of surfactant, which was the most expensive fuel component. The tendency of the microemulsions to form soot was found to correlate with HC ratio in the same way as typical petroleum-base fuels. Ferrocene, which is well known for its ability to reduce exhaust smoke, had the same effect on the microemulsions as the base fuels it did not affect flame radiation. Hydrazine was not an effective additive for reducing exhaust smoke.