Reduction of Exhaust Smoke from Gas-Turbine Engines by Using Fuel Emulsions.
SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INST SAN ANTONIO TX ARMY FUELS AND LUBRICANTS RESEARCH LAB
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Low-internal-phase ratio emulsions of water-in-fuel have been investigated for their potential in reducing exhaust smoke from gas-turbine engines. The unique mechanism is the selective vaporization of the internal phase during the period of droplet heating. Experiments were conducted in a combustor facility fabricated from T-63 engine hardware using a single-can combustor with a dual-orifice pressure atomizer. Two series of tests were performed. The initial sequence employed air flow conditions that simulated full engine power the smokiest condition. During the experiments, the fuel specifications, water concentration, surfactant concentration, and dispersion size were varied, and measurements of exhaust smoke, combustor temperature rise, flame radiation, and combustion efficiency based upon exhaust chemistry were obtained. The initial series of experiments suggested that a 48 percent reduction in exhaust particulate concentration, based upon a correlation due to Champagne, was possible with an emulsion having a water-to-fuel ratio of 0.1. The later series of tests was oriented toward optimization of the water concentration for smoke reduction and examination of the complete engine power spectrum.
- Combustion and Ignition
- Jet and Gas Turbine Engines