Air Traffic Management: Civil/Military Systems and Technologies.
ADVISORY GROUP FOR AEROSPACE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT NEUILLY-SUR-SEINE (FRANCE)
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In the evolution of Air Traffic Control certain important phases can be identified. Until recently, these phases were usually characterized by the advent of a particular technical or technological development. A first phase which roughly covered the period 1930-1950 was characterized by manual operation, visual surveillance, time separation of aircraft, the use of radio for communication and low frequency aids for navigation. A second phase which extended, say, from the late 1950s until about 1970 was essentially characterized by the introduction and extensive use of two techniques radar, both primary and secondary, for surveillance and VORDME for navigation. Then, from the late 1960s onwards, the introduction of the computer in to ATC opens a new era flight plans and radar data processing, synthetic data displays and digital communications. In some systems, automation is already providing systematic back-up for the controller and this phase of automation is only just starting. In the early 1970s, a new and completely different phase started in parallel and is continuing. It is a phase not related to any particular technological developments but one born of concern shown by both the users of the airspace and the authorities responsible for the ATC services for economy and concern expressed by the community regarding the conservation of natural resources, in general, and the impact which further development of aviation can have on ecology, in particular. In this era, demands and constraints issued from various sources are no longer simple and may even contain some degree of contradiction. Consequently, present overall requirements for aviation operation have reached a high level of complexity.
- Commercial and General Aviation
- Air Navigation and Guidance
- Active and Passive Radar Detection and Equipment
- Non-Radio Communications