Frequency Spreading in Underwater Acoustic Signal Transmission.
Final rept. Feb 77-Jun 78,
YALE UNIV NEW HAVEN CT SYSTEMS AND INFORMATION SCIENCES
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The scattering of acoustic waves from a randomly varying wind-driven water surface is known to introduce both time and frequency spreading of the received signal. The frequency spreading is thought to be related to surface statistics and water wave motion. Therefore, knowledge of this relation leads to the possibility of predicting surface statistics by analysis of the received acoustic signal. One important feature of the frequency spreading function is that the Doppler sidebands are not equal in magnitude on both sides of the carrier. Unequal sidebands are predicted if the acoustic source and receiver are not located at the same depths below the water surface and if the direction of the surface wave motion is not perpendicular to the vertical plane containing both the source and the receiver. Experimental results from a model tank operated under various wind conditions have verified the existence of unequal Doppler sidebands under these conditions. However, strong asymmetries in sidebands were also observed under conditions under which the previous theory would have predicted no asymmetries at all. For example, strong asymmetries have been observed in the crosswind direction. This research is to explain the asymmetries not predicted in previous theory but discovered under laboratory operations, and to predict other asymmetries not yet found in either the experimental or the theoretical phase.