Development of Army Fire-Resistant Diesel Fuel.
Interim rept. 1 Oct 77-31 Dec 79,
SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INST SAN ANTONIO TX ARMY FUELS AND LUBRICANTS RESEARCH LAB
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Six different approaches to achieving reduced fuel fire vulnerability investigated by the U.S. Army have been described. The last approach was selected for developing fire-resistant fuels FRF for diesel-powered ground equipment. The selected approach involves the inclusion of emulsified water in surfactant-stabilized diesel fuel. An alternative approach, using half as much water and trace amounts of antimist agent in surfactant-stabilized diesel fuel, also has been investigated. Screening studies followed by laboratory, bench-scale, and full-scale experimental investigations have led to the development of clear-to-hazy fire-resistant microemulsions of 10 percent volume water and 6 percent volume surfactant FRF-A and alternatively, of 5 percent volume water and 3 percent volume surfactant with 0.2 wt antimist agent FRF-B, both formulated in DF-2 diesel fuel. The surfactant comprises a mixture of reaction products formed from two moles of diethanolamine and mole of oleic acid, or 1.009 moles of oleic acid in a modified version of the surfactant. Flammability evaluations demonstrate that these aqueous microemulsions yield diminished mist flammability while either eliminating pool burning or providing rapid self-extinguishment of pool fires, even at fuel temperatures more than 10 degrees C above the base fuel flash point. Bench-scale ballistic tests, using 20-mm high-explosive incendiary tracer projectiles, and full-scale ballistic tests, using 3.2-inch precision shaped charges, confirm and correlate with the flammability data.