Study of Air-to-Ground and Ground-to-Air Target Handoff
ARMY RESEARCH INST FOR THE BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES ALEXANDRIA VA
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It has been noted that is is relatively easy for ground observers to handoff designate ground targets to other ground elements. In this instance, both are viewing the target and surrounding terrain from a similar perspective. Similarly, a scout helicopter can relatively easily designate targets for Attack Helicopters AH -- again in this instance, the perspective from which both are viewing the target is similar. It is, however, extremely difficult for ground observers to handoff targets to elements of air cavalry or tactical helicopter units. As an example, the ground observer may designate a target as being located among the tallest trees in a certain grid square, but the helicopter pilot will be unable to discern tree height from his viewing position. Conversely, a helicopter pilot may wish to have a ground unit fire on a group of enemy located on trail bend. The bend will be a salient feature when viewed from above, but will not be at all obvious from the ground view. Thus, differences in perspective and the low likelihood that the ground and airborne observers will understand these differences contribute to difficulties in designating a target. The usefulness of maps in targets designation is low. The 1250,000 scale map carried by aircraft is not adequate for use in target designation because of lack of detail. In addition, the accuracy of any given map is an unknown factor.
- Military Operations, Strategy and Tactics