Investigation of Expanding Cements. Report 1. Summary of Information Available as of 1 July 1963
ARMY ENGINEER WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT STATION VICKSBURG MS
Pagination or Media Count:
It has been known for more than a century that the reaction of calcium aluminate with sulfate ion to form calcium sulfoaluminates or calcium aluminum sulfates is accompanied by an increase in volume. During most of this period, the reaction has been regarded wholly as a harmful one, the consequences of which are deteriorative or destructive to concrete. This report attempts to review and summarize available information on expanding cements, as developed both in the United States and elsewhere, from the standpoint not only of the chemical and physical mechanisms involved, but also of the potential and actual applications that might be made of these products by the Corps of Engineers. Beginning with the work of Lossier in the 1940s, continuing with work in the U.S.S.R. in the 1950s, and the work of Klein and associates in the United States in 1958, this reaction has been studied with a view to employing the resultant volume increase to achieve beneficial results. The general consensus is that much basic knowledge needs to be obtained regarding the numerous potential expansive combinations of materials to relate their behavior to the specific physical-chemical mechanisms that are involved. It also appears to be true that, in spite of major gaps in fundamental knowledge, certain specific formulations involving specific materials have been and are being used successfully in full- scale engineering applications.
- Physical Chemistry
- Construction Equipment, Materials and Supplies