Seeking Low Ice Adhesion
COLD REGIONS RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING LAB HANOVER NH
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Icing impairs operation of helicopters and other aircraft, antennae, power and communication lines, shipping and superstructures, canal locks, etc. Prevention or easier removal of icing requires reduction of its adhesion strength. Literature study shows that adhesion results from secondary van der Waals forces yet exceeds normal cohesive strengths. It depends on free surface energy, low contact angle, good contact and wetting, cleanliness, and texture. Modes of adhesion testing are briefly discussed. Poor adhesion occurs with low energy surfaces or contaminants, e.g. hydrocarbons, fluorocarbons, waxes, oils, etc., particularly when textured or porous. The resulting low contact angle, poor wetting and occlusion of air at the interface weaken the bond or provide stress loci which can initiate cracks and failure. Coefficient of expansion differences may help in release of ice. Further ideas appear among the 100 abstracts presented. A survey of over 300 manufacturers produced over 100 replies. Half of them offered some 100 products deemed worth testing. These are listed with addresses and contacts.
- Snow, Ice and Permafrost