A Landmark-Based Location Reference Grid for Street Maps.
ARMY MILITARY PERSONNEL CENTER ALEXANDRIA VA
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Research in cognition and perception has demonstrated that landmarks are useful for orienting travellers in a city. A landmark-based grid reference system for street maps is investigated as a replacement for the conventional system. Locations are referenced to a series of landmarks irregularly spaced throughout the map, each of which is the center of a 2-by-2 grid cell. The cells, labelled by compass quadrant, vary in size depending on distance to adjacent landmarks. The landmark grid relates the map to the landscape, is easily used in a moving car while folded, references locations in the way that directions are given, and fosters familiarity with an area. Potential disadvantages include higher costs because of more drafting time and the research required to insure that depicted landmarks accurately reflect common usage by local residents. A sample of the general population tested the landmark and standard systems using navigation, measurement and visualization tasks. The landmark system allows higher accuracy in less time than existing grids, and assists map users in remembering spatial locations. Author
- Cartography and Aerial Photography