State-of-the-Art for Assessing Earthquake Hazards in the United States. Report 11. Imagery in Earthquake Analysis.
ARMY ENGINEER WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT STATION VICKSBURG MISS
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Recent advances in the fields of remote sensing, engineering geology, seismology, and earthquake engineering have developed a need for a systematic comprehensive review of the basic principles and methods of applying remote sensing for evaluation of earthquakes hazards and seismic risk. This paper responds to this need by reviewing basic concepts, summarizing essential, state-of-the-art knowledge of theory and instrumental methods, establishing procedures evaluations, and discussing representative case histories that illustrate earthquake hazard evaluations that are based on remote sensing analysis. The approach that is recommended is based on a multi approach that uses an integrated and systematic study of a region or a fault with a variety of imagery varying from small-scale synoptic to large-scale detailed. The imagery analysis should be followed by a ground verification program of study that should include both ground and aerial reconnaissance examination of the major geologic structures of concern. The character of the earthquake hazards is discussed in the context of the lithologic, structural, vegetational, and topographic variations that are associated with different types of active geologic structures. The response of earth materials, landforms, and geologic structures is summarized for the several main types of passive and active electromagnetic radiation used in current remote-sensing practice. Limitations of the different spectral regions used in remote sensing are reviewed to assist in the selection of ideal methods or sequences of methods of study for effective evaluation of active or capable faults and for assessing the earthquake potential of geological structures that may affect a given engineering site.