Analysis of Semiconductor Structures by Nuclear and Electrical Techniques.
CALIFORNIA INST OF TECH PASADENA DEPT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
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This report is an overview of the subject of silicide formation by thin metal films reacting with a Si substrate. The first section discusses the method of sample preparation typically used in the studies of silicide formation. Three specific cases are reviewed in detail Ni, Hf, V. They fall in a general pattern of silicide formation metal-rich silicides, monosilicides, disilicides. Oxidizing ambients during the annealing can interfere with the kinetics, but do not appear to affect the final composition of the compounds formed. The second section treats marker experiments of various kinds implanted inert gas atoms, deposited inert metal islands, radioactively marked atoms and compound layers. The results of these experiments are discussed, and it is shown how atomic diffusivities can be derived from marker experiments. The third section deals with the formation process itself. The role of the solubilities and diffusivities of the elements in each other, and in the compounds, are discussed. The energy of formation of the silicides are compared with the types of silicides actually observed. It is noted that kinetics of atomic movements and the crystal structure of the compounds must be considered to come to an understanding of the silicides observed. A central question is that of nucleation and which phase the nucleation process will favor.
- Inorganic Chemistry
- Solid State Physics