Gunnery Laying by the Direct and Indirect Method: A Bibliography of Book and Military Periodical Articles.
ARMY FIELD ARTILLERY SCHOOL FORT SILL OKLA
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This bibliography concerns the specific subject of gunnery fire direction known as gun or howitzer laying. The practice of gun-laying was accomplished by point-blank or maximum elevation of fire during the 1700s. The elevating screw was devised in about 1800 which introduced flexibility in direct laying of fire which was made possible through the use of fixed rear sights to fire on specific targets. Corrections were made by observation of prior shots. Today the tangent, telescopic, or other sighting means have replaced the fixed sight. Indirect gun laying first came into use during 1813 when the British used the principle at the siege of St. Sebastien, Spain. Since that time firing from the defilade protected position at a predetermined aiming point so that fire can be shifted to an unseen target has become the standard means of area neutralization. Instruments include the dial sight, the sight clinometer, and the range indicator as modern-day replacements for the old gunners level. Emphasis in this number is on the developmental aspects of gun laying including the direct and indirect methods. Materials listed have been selected from book and periodical holdings of the Morris Swett Library.
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