The Isolation of Minimum Sets of Visual Image Cues Sufficient for Spatial Orientation during Aircraft Landing Approaches
Technical rept. 1974-1976
ILLINOIS UNIV AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN SAVOYAVIATION RESEARCH LAB
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An experimental investigation of synthetic imaging displays was directed toward the isolation of minimum sets of visual cues sufficient for spatial orientation in ground-referenced aircraft landing approaches. Thirty-two flight instructors viewed static computer-generated airport scenes TV-projected onto a large screen viewed from the cockpit of the twin-engine general aviation trainer. Judgments of lateral and vertical deviations from a four-degree approach to landing aim point in the display were made to 32 combinations of four contact analog cues runway outline, runway touchdown zone, runway centerline, and ground plane texture and one guidance cue glidepath-localizer symbol. Each resulting display was responded to once or more from each of 27 different flight position and attitude viewpoints by each of eight subjects in different serial orders. Dependent measures were response choice and response latency. The most accurate glidepath and course deviation judgments were made when the guidance cue glidepath was in the set. When only contact analog cues were present the best judgments of spatial orientation consistently were made when the runway outline was present at far and medium ranges from touchdown and when the runway centerline was present at near range.
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